Founded in 1888 by Texas & Pacific Coal Company (now owned by Sun Oil Company), flourished as a coal mining town; reached a population of 10,000. The town was totally owned by the company; believed to have been the first city with totally unionized industries. Electricity provided in 1895, one of the first town in the world with complete electric service. Miners were recruited from around the world; 17 nationalities were represented. With the discovery of high grade clay, brick manufacturing was added. The mines closed in 1921, the brick plant in 1930. The city was abandoned in 1933 and almost entirely razed.
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